1. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICES
1.1 REVENUE RECOGNITION
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Revenue is net of returns and is reduced for rebates, trade discounts, refunds and other similar allowances. Revenue is net of sales tax, value added tax, goods and service tax, service tax and other similar taxes.
1.1.1 Sale of goods
Revenue is recognised, when the significant risks and rewards of the ownership have been transferred to the buyers and there is no continuing effective control over the goods or managerial involvement with the goods. Revenue from sale of WTGs is recognised on supply in terms of the respective contracts. Revenue from sale of power is recognised on the basis of actual units generated and transmitted to the purchaser.
1.1.2 Rendering of services
Revenue from services rendered is recognised in profit or loss in proportion to the stage of completion of transaction at the reporting date and when the costs incurred for the transactions and the costs to complete the transaction can be measured reliably, as under:
Revenue from EPC is recognised on the basis of stage of completion by reference to surveys of work performed. Revenue from operations and maintenance and common infrastructure facilities contracts is recognised over the period of the contract, on a straight-line basis. Revenue from wind farm development is recognised when the wind farm site is developed and transferred to the customers in terms of the respective contracts.
1.1.3 Other income
Dividend income from investments is recognized when the right to receive payment is established. Interest income from a financial asset is recognised on time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate which exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition. Insurance claims are recognised to the extent there is a reasonable certainty of the realizability of the claim amount.
1.2 GOVERNMENT GRANTS
Government grants are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that they will be received and the Company will comply with the conditions associated with the grants.
Government grants in the form of non-monetary asset given at a concessional rate is accounted for at their fair value. The related grant is presented as deferred income and subsequently transferred to profit or loss as other income on a systematic and rational basis. Grants that compensate the company for expenses incurred are recognised in profit or loss, either as other income or deducted in reporting the related expense, as appropriate, on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognises as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate. Government grants that are receivable as compensation for expenses or losses already incurred or for the purpose of giving immediate financial support to the Company with no future related costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they become receivable.
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases. The leasing transaction of the Company comprise of only operating leases.
1.3.1 The Company as lessee
Payments made under operating leases are generally recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease unless such payments are structured to increase in line with the expected general inflation to compensate for the lessors’ expected inflationary cost increases. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
1.4 FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS AND TRANSLATION
In preparing the financial statements of the Company, transactions in currencies other than the Company’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognised at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, foreign currency monetary items are translated using the closing rates. Nonmonetary items measured at historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction and are not translated. Non-monetary items measured at fair value that are denominated in foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was measured.
Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for:
- exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings; and
- exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks (refer Note 3.14 below for hedging accounting policies).
1.5 BORROWING COSTS
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.
Interest income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.
All other borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.
1.6 EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
1.6.1 Retirement benefit costs
Recognition and measurement of defined contribution plans:
Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plan viz. government administered provident funds and pension schemes are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions.
Recognition and measurement of defined benefit plans:
For defined benefit plan, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each reporting period. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognised in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and is not reclassified to profit or loss. Past service cost is recognised in profit or loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit plan at the start of the reporting period, taking account of any change in the net defined benefit plan during the year as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Defined benefit costs are categorised as follows:
- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);
- net interest expense or income; and
The Company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in profit or loss in the line item ‘Employee benefits expense’. Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past service costs.
The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the standalone balance sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.
1.6.2 Short-term and other long-term employee benefits
A liability is recognised for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries, annual leave and sick leave, bonus etc. in the period the related service is rendered at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service.
Liabilities recognised in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.
Liabilities recognised in respect of other long-term employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date.
Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
1.7.1 Current tax
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax’ as reported in the Standalone Statement of Profit and Loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years, items that are never taxable or deductible and tax incentives. The Company’s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
1.7.2 Deferred tax
Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the standalone financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, except where the Company is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences associated with such investments are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits against which the benefits of the temporary differences can be utilised and they are expected to reverse in the foreseeable future.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
1.7.3 Presentation of current and deferred tax :
Current and deferred tax are recognised in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.
The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. In case of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, the same are offset if the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off corresponding current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the Company.
1.8 PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
An item of property, plant and equipment that qualifies as an asset is measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE) are carried at cost, as reduced by accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any.
The Company identifies and determines cost of each part of an item of property, plant and equipment separately, if the part has a cost which is significant to the total cost of that item of property, plant and equipment and has useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining item.
Cost comprises of purchase price / cost of construction, including non-refundable taxes or levies and any expenses attributable to bring the PPE to its working condition for its intended use. Project pre-operative expenses and expenditure incurred during construction period are capitalized to various eligible PPE. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of qualifying PPE are capitalised.
Spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment that meet the definition of property, plant and equipment are capitalized at cost and depreciated over their useful life. Costs in nature of repairs and maintenance are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.
Cost of assets not ready for intended use, as on the Balance Sheet date, is shown as capital work in progress. Advances given towards acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each Balance Sheet date are disclosed as Other Non-current assets.
Depreciation is recognised so as to write off the cost of PPE (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method. The useful lives prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 are considered as the minimum lives. If the management’s estimate of the useful life of property, plant and equipment at the time of acquisition of the asset or of the remaining useful life on a subsequent review is shorter than that envisaged in the aforesaid schedule, depreciation is provided at a higher rate based on the management’s estimate of the useful life/remaining useful life. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
PPE are depreciated over its estimated useful lives, determined as under:
- Freehold land is not depreciated.
- On other items of PPE, on the basis of useful life as per Part C of Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.
The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in profit or loss.
For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as of 1 April 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.
1.9 INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
Intangible assets acquired in a business combination and recognised separately from goodwill are initially recognised at their fair value at the acquisition date (which is regarded as their cost). Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets acquired in a business combination are reported at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets as above.
An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, are recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised.
Estimated useful lives of intangible assets
Estimated useful lives of the intangible assets are as follows:
- Technical know-how 10 years
- Operating software 3 years
- Other Software 6 years
For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its intangible assets recognised as of 1 April 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.
1.10 IMPAIRMENT OF TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS OTHER THAN GOODWILL
At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets (other than goodwill) to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted. If it is not possible to measure fair value less cost of disposal because there is no basis for making a reliable estimate of the price at which an orderly transaction to sell the asset would take place between market participants at the measurement dates under market conditions, the asset’s value in use is used as recoverable amount.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, to the extent that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Inventories are valued at lower of the cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined using weighted average cost basis.
Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, duties and taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities) and all other costs incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition.
Cost of finished goods and work-in-progress includes the cost of materials, conversion costs, an appropriate share of fixed and variable production overheads and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Closing stock of imported materials include customs duty payable thereon, wherever applicable. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
1.12 PROVISIONS AND CONTINGENCIES
The Company recognizes provisions when a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event exists and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle such obligation and the amount of such obligation can be reliably estimated.
The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. If the effect of time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.
A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits or the amount of such obligation cannot be measured reliably. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which likelihood of outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
Contingent liabilities acquired in a business combination are initially measured at fair value at the acquisition date. At the end of subsequent period, such contingent liabilities are measured at the higher of the amounts that would be recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets and the amount initially recognised less cumulative amortisation recognised in accordance with Ind AS 18 Revenue, if any.
1.13 FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss.
[A] Financial assets
a) Initial recognition and measurement:
Financial assets are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. On initial recognition, a financial asset is recognised at fair value, in case of financial assets which are recognised at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), its transaction costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. In other cases, the transaction costs are attributed to the acquisition value of the financial asset.
b) Effective interest method:
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Income is recognised on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL. Interest income is recognised in profit or loss and is included in the “Other income” line item.
c) Subsequent measurement:
For subsequent measurement, the Company classifies a financial asset in accordance with the below criteria:
i. The Company’s business model for managing the financial asset and
ii. The contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.
Based on the above criteria, the Company classifies its financial assets into the following categories:
i. Financial assets measured at amortized cost:
A financial asset is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The Company’s business model objective for managing the financial asset is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows, and
b) The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
This category applies to cash and bank balances, trade receivables, loans other financial assets and certain investments of the Company. Such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.
The amortized cost of a financial asset is also adjusted for loss allowance, if any.
ii. Financial assets measured at FVTOCI:
A financial asset is measured at FVTOCI if both of the following conditions are met:
a) The Company’s business model objective for managing the financial asset is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and
b) The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Investments in equity instruments classified under financial assets are initially measured at fair value. The Company may, on initial recognition, irrevocably elect to measure the same either at FVTOCI or FVTPL. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. Fair value changes on an equity instrument are recognised as other income in the Statement of Profit and Loss unless the Company has elected to measure such instrument at FVTOCI.
This category does not apply to any of the financial assets of the Company other than the derivative instrument for the cash flow hedges.
iii. Financial assets measured at FVTPL:
A financial asset is measured at FVTPL unless it is measured at amortized cost or at FVTOCI as explained above.
This is a residual category applied to all other investments of the Company. Such financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value at each reporting date. Fair value changes are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Dividend income on the investments in equity instruments are recognised as ‘other income’ in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
d) Foreign exchange gains and losses
The fair value of financial assets denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of each reporting period.
For foreign currency denominated financial assets measured at amortised cost and FVTPL, the exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss except for those which are designated as hedging instruments in a hedging relationship.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognized (i.e. removed from the Company’s Balance Sheet) when any of the following occurs:
i. The contractual rights to cash flows from the financial asset expires;
ii. The Company transfers its contractual rights to receive cash flows of the financial asset and has substantially transferred all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset;
iii. The Company retains the contractual rights to receive cash flows but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows without material delay to one or more recipients under a ‘passthrough’ arrangement (thereby substantially transferring all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset);
iv. The Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all risk and rewards of ownership and does not retain control over the financial asset.
In cases where Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the financial asset, but retains control of the financial asset, the Company continues to recognize such financial asset to the extent of its continuing involvement in the financial asset. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability.
The financial asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
On derecognition of a financial asset, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognised in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset.
f) Impairment of financial assets:
The Company applies expected credit losses (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of loss allowance on the following:
i. Trade receivables
ii. Financial assets measured at amortized cost (other than trade receivables)
iii. Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
In case of trade receivables, the Company follows a simplified approach wherein an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance.
In case of other assets (listed as ii and iii above), the Company determines if there has been a significant increase in credit risk of the financial asset since initial recognition. If the credit risk of such assets has not increased significantly, an amount equal to 12-month ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance.
Subsequently, if the credit quality of the financial asset improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, the Company reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.
ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate.
12-month ECL are a portion of the lifetime ECL which result from default events that are possible within
12 months from the reporting date. Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial asset.
ECL are measured in a manner that they reflect unbiased and probability weighted amounts determined by a range of outcomes, taking into account the time value of money and other reasonable information available as a result of past events, current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions.
As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to measure lifetime ECL on its portfolio of trade receivables. The provision matrix is prepared based on historically observed default rates over the expected life of trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At each reporting date, the historically observed default rates and changes in the forward-looking estimates are updated.
ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as expense/ income in the Statement of Profit and Loss under the head ‘Other expenses’/’Other income’.
[B] Financial liabilities and equity instruments
Debt and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.
i. Equity instruments:-
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
Repurchase of the Company’s own equity instruments is recognised and deducted directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company’s own equity instruments.
ii. Financial Liabilities:-
a) Initial recognition and measurement :
Financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value.
b) Subsequent measurement:
Financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Financial liabilities carried at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value with all changes in fair value recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The Company has not designated any financial liability as at FVTPL other than derivative instrument.
c) Foreign exchange gains and losses:
For financial liabilities that are denominated in a foreign currency and are measured at amortised cost at the end of each reporting period, the foreign exchange gains and losses are determined based on the amortised cost of the instruments and are recognised in profit or loss.
The fair value of financial liabilities denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the closing rate at the end of the reporting period. For financial liabilities that are measured as at FVTPL, the foreign exchange component forms part of the fair value gains or losses and is recognised in profit or loss.
d) Derecognition of financial liabilities:
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
1.14 DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND HEDGE ACCOUNTING
The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks, including foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swaps and cross currency swaps. Further details of derivative financial instruments are disclosed in Note 38.
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.
The Company designates certain hedging instruments, which include derivatives, as either fair value hedges, or cash flow hedges.
At the inception of the hedge relationship, the Company documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, the Company documents whether the hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.
The hedge relationship so designated as fair value is accounted for in accordance with the accounting principles prescribed for hedge accounting under Ind AS 109, ‘Financial Instruments’.
a) Fair value hedge:
Hedging instrument is initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and is subsequently measured at fair value at each reporting date. Gain or loss arising from changes in the fair value of hedging instrument is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Hedging instrument is recognized as a financial asset in the Balance Sheet if its fair value as at reporting date is positive as compared to carrying value and as a financial liability if its fair value as at reporting date is negative as compared to carrying value.
Hedged item is initially recognized at fair value on the date of entering into contractual obligation and is subsequently measured at amortized cost. The gain or loss on the hedged item is adjusted to the carrying value of the hedged item and the corresponding effect is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting.
Note 38 sets out details of the fair values of the derivative instruments used for hedging purposes.
b) Cash flow hedges
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of cash flow hedging reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity relating to (effective portion as described above) are reclassified to profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, in the same line as the recognised hedged item. However, when the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, such gains and losses are transferred from equity (but not as a reclassification adjustment) and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the non-financial asset or non-financial liability.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting.
Any gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognised when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognised in profit or loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in equity is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
1.15 EARNINGS PER SHARE
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit for the period attributable to the equity shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period and for all periods presented is adjusted for events, such as bonus shares, other than the conversion of potential equity shares that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
1.16 RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
a) On 28 March 2018, the ministry of Corporate Affairs has notifies Ind AS 115, ‘Revenue from contracts with customers’ which is applicable to the Company from 1 April 2018. The main principle of the new standard is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The effect on the financial statements is being evaluated by the Company.
b) On 28 March 2018, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs has issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendments Rules, 2018 containing Appendix B to Ind AS 21, foreign currency transactions and advance considerations which clarifies the date of the transaction for the purpose of determining the exchange rate to use an initial recognition of the related asset, expense or income, when an entity has received or paid advance consideration in a foreign currency. The effect on the financial statements is being evaluated by the Company.